Polish Geographical Review (Przegląd Geograficzny)
The longest-running (since 1919) Polish geographical journal with countrywide coverage. In the years 1919-1953, it appeared under the sponsorship of the Polish Geographical Society, and later on, since 1954 – it has been published by the Institute of Geography (and Spatial Organization) Polish Academy of Sciences.
The journal publishes original papers that cover a range of theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues, with subject-matter reflecting both main trends as well as an evolution going on in Polish geography. The majority of papers is published in Polish, and only occasionally in English. Among the Authors are not only Poles but also foreigners. Since 2001, the particular issues have been dedicated to two broadly defined geographical fields, i.e. being entirely focused on either physical or socio-economic geography.
A Quarterly – in the past, some of the numbers were published as combined issues (in the years 1941-1946 one issue per year). In 2019, 90th volume appeared. The journal is prepared and edited by the Committee of Editors; since 2001, the editorial works have been conducted in cooperation with consultative and advisory body in the form of Editorial Board, consisting of renowned representatives of geographical sciences both from Poland and abroad.
The journal is indexed by Scopus, GeoRef, ProQuest-IBBS, Geobase, Current Geographical Publications – Contents, Bibliographie Géographique Internationale.
The primary version of the journal is printed version.
Open Access journal. Papers are published under a Creative Common Attribution CC BY 4.0 licence without embargo period.
The level of supply of selected atmospheric pollutants and their impact on water quality in the urban catchment of Różany Strumień in Poznan, Poland, in hydrological years 2016‑2020
Przegląd Geograficzny (2022) tom 94, zeszyt 4, pp. 415-436 | Full text
Precipitation in open space is one of the stages of the water cycle representing an element of “entry” into the geoecosystem. Rainfall supplies various pollutants from the atmosphere to the ground, with these including dissolved chemical components. This makes it important for selected physicochemical parameters to be quantified at this stage of the water cycle, in order for processes taking place in the natural environment more widely to be properly elucidated.
The research detailed here was conducted over 5 hydrological years (2016‑2020 inclusive) within the borders of the urban catchment of the Różany Strumień stream flowing through the northern part of the large Polish city of Poznań. The natural environment of the Różany Strumień catchment is characterised by significant transformations due to human activity. Key environmental problems here include threats relating to the pollution of surface waters and groundwater, as a result of processes associated with the functioning of the urban catchment.
The main aim here is to present the level of supply into the catchment of pollutants, and to determine the temporal variability of matter circulation in this small urban catchment, in years with different pluvial conditions, and therefore quantitatively variable atmospheric supply to the geoecosystem.
Levels of supply of pollutants into the catchment were determined through systematic and comprehensive measuring of the natural environment. The measurement system and field-research methodology relate to the methodological concept of system functioning, as well as the assumptions of Poland’s Programme of Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment (IMNE).
Results for the measurement of several different environmental components are presented, beginning with core meteorological conditions (precipitation and air temperature). The average annual air temperature in all 5 analysed years was higher than the long-term average for the IMGW-PIB Poznań-Ławica Station over the 1981‑2010 period, equal to 8.8°C. The coldest year was 2017 with an average annual air temperature of 9.3°C; in turn, the warmest years were 2019 and 2020 (the average annual air temperature was 10.7°C). Atmospheric water supply to the catchment area was much smaller in the dry years 2018‑2019 and equaled to 437.8 mm and 467.5 mm, respectively. The year 2017 was the wettest (744.2 mm), exceeding the average total monthly precipitation from the long-term period 1981‑2010 by 222 mm. In the remaining two years, total annual precipitation was 652.5 mm (2016) and 592.8 mm (2020).
Further elements of the research relate to air pollution with SO2 and NO2, as well as to the chemical composition of precipitation considered to enter the geoecosystem. The permissible concentrations of sulfur dioxide (20 μg·m-3) and nitrogen dioxide (40 μg·m-3) were not exceeded in any of the analysed year. The highest monthly concentrations were recorded in the winter half-year, which was caused by the heating season and the burning of fossil fuels. At the beginning of the analysed five-year period, an increase indicators of participation of acidic factors in acidulating precipitations (defined as the ratio of the weighted average concentrations of NO3- and SO42-) was observed. In turn, in 2020, this indicator decreased again and was the lowest in the years 2016‑2020. This indicates a lower share of nitrates and a greater share of sulphates in precipitation.
Precipitation in the Różany Strumień catchment is characterised by relatively low mineralisation and normal pH. The average atmospheric deposition (loads) in the analysed five-year period was 2800 kg∙km-2; with an average annual precipitation total of 578.4 mm. The lowest atmospheric deposition of 2200 kg∙km-2 was recorded in 2019 (with an annual precipitation total of 467.5 mm), and the highest 3500 kg∙km-2 in 2017 (with an annual precipitation of 741.4 mm).
Further findings concern physicochemical properties (i.a. levels, flows and chemical composition) of surface waters and groundwater. Highest water level and also water flow, were recorded directly after daily precipitation totals < 20 mm. Favorable rainfall conditions in 2016‑2017 had a positive effect on the water flows, as the highest ones occurred in the Różany Strumień in wet a 2017 and at the beginning of 2018. The Różany Strumień waters were characterised by a slightly alkaline pH (8.0) and high mineralisation (SEC = 88.6 mS·m-1) in the 2016‑2020 period. The high value of SEC was related, among others, to anthropogenic transformations in the catchment area (land use changes, deforestation for urbanization and agricultural purposes), as well as the supply of polluted water to watercourses or surface runoff from agricultural areas.
The denudation balance was also determined. In lowland regions, chemical denudation processes outweigh mechanical denudation processes. In the analysed catchment there is a positive balance of biogenic ions and ions supplied by human activity (e.g. through fertiliser use) – NO3-, NH4+ and K+. Other chemical components (denudation ions) occurring in the waters circulating in the catchment are characterized by a negative balance.
The denudation balance analysis of the Różany Strumień catchment can serve as a good indicator of anthropopressure, and especially the excessive supply of the natural environment in nutrients (from both fertilisers and domestic pollutants).
Keywords: monitoring, Różany Strumień catchment, supply of pollutants, chemical composition, ion balance, water quality
email@example.com], Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Stacja Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego „Poznań-Morasko”
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Stacja Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego „Poznań-Morasko”
[email@example.com], Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Stacja Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego „Poznań-Morasko”
APA: Major, M., Chudzińska, M., & Majewski, M. (2022). Wielkość dostawy wybranych zanieczyszczeń atmosferycznych i ich wpływ na jakość wód w zurbanizowanej zlewni Różanego Strumienia w Poznaniu w latach hydrologicznych 2016‑2020. Przegląd Geograficzny, 94(4), 415-436. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.1
MLA: Major, Maciej, et al. "Wielkość dostawy wybranych zanieczyszczeń atmosferycznych i ich wpływ na jakość wód w zurbanizowanej zlewni Różanego Strumienia w Poznaniu w latach hydrologicznych 2016‑2020". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, 2022, pp. 415-436. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.1
Chicago: Major, Maciej, Chudzińska, Maria, and Majewski, Mikołaj. "Wielkość dostawy wybranych zanieczyszczeń atmosferycznych i ich wpływ na jakość wód w zurbanizowanej zlewni Różanego Strumienia w Poznaniu w latach hydrologicznych 2016‑2020". Przegląd Geograficzny 94, no. 4 (2022): 415-436. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.1
Harvard: Major, M., Chudzińska, M., & Majewski, M. 2022. "Wielkość dostawy wybranych zanieczyszczeń atmosferycznych i ich wpływ na jakość wód w zurbanizowanej zlewni Różanego Strumienia w Poznaniu w latach hydrologicznych 2016‑2020". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 415-436. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.1
Grain-Size Composition on Talus Slopes in the context of disparate climatic conditions of periglacial mountain zones (exemplified by Spitsbergen and Central Asia)
Przegląd Geograficzny (2022) tom 94, zeszyt 4, pp. 437-450 | Full text
The origins of talus slopes origin are connected with both weathering and the transport of rock grain. Slope formation in these landforms reflects many climatological, morphological and geological factors, with grain-size dsitributions characterising the surface of talus slopes able to offer some information on means of transport and deposition mechanisms. The main aim of the work detailed here has thus been to present disparate processes of talus-slope formation in two mountain locations – in zones of Arctic periglacial and semi-arid Continental periglacial climate.
Results for the two study sites are presented. The first is located on Spitsbergen, on its SW coast, near the Polish Polar Station. The climate there is Arctic and periglacial, the average annual temperature being -3.2°C and mean annual precipitation 494.6 mm. The slope here has a western exposure, with the rock face and talus slope built of gneiss and crystalline shales with marble intrusions. There is permafrost as well as an active layer noted at this study site. The second study site is in the Fann Mountains, which form part of the Pamiro-Allay Massif in Tajikistan. Annual temperature there is of about 1‑2°C (nearby Stations reporting 6.6°C at Iskanderkul at 2204 m a.s.l., and 0.7°C at the Shahristan Pass at 3143 m a.s.l.), while annual precipitation is some 300 mm. The slope has a southerly exposure, while the rock material is a massive Devonian limestone. No permafrost is to be observed in this area.
Similar methods were used at both study sites, as Profiles featuring four measurement points were designated. At these points, 0.5 x 0.5 m squares were marked, and perpendicular photographs taken at a distance of 1.5 m. Composition as regards grain-size was analysed using BaseGRAIN software.
Structure as regards grain-size is seen to differ strongly between the two talus slopes. On Spitsbergen, grain-size is steadily greater at higher points up the slope. Close to the rock cliff it is boulders and large stones that dominate, while on the lowest parts it is grain-sizes classifiable as sand and silt that account for the greater part of the deposit. In the semi-arid climate of Asia, grain size proves to be sorted in the opposite way, with the largest debris fragments characterising the lowest parts of the talus slope. Close to the rock cliff, at the highest elevations, grains are of the smallest size, and are mostly assignable to the gravel and small stone categories. It is at the foot of the slope that rock sizes are the largest.
The most important factor underpinning the disparate formation of these two talus slopes is permafrost. Talus-slope structure in the Arctic reflects mutually-interrelated processes. Those concerning gravity related to the melting of permafrost with larger stones dislocated to the surface. Additionally, melting of the active layer and the presence of a roof of permafrost allows flowing water deriving from rain and snowmelt to bring about the intensive transport of particles of sand and silt sizes down to the lower part of the slope.
In the periglacial high-mountain conditions noted in Asia, the lack of permafrost combined with the low level of precipitation to minimise the factor of water here. The dominance of gravitational processes in the sorting material ensures that heaviest rock fragments are transported for longer, and end up being deposited in lower positions on the slope.
Keywords: talus slopes, grain size, Spitsbergen, Fann Mountains, periglacial zone
firstname.lastname@example.org], Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, Instytut Geografii
[email@example.com], Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, Instytut Geografii
APA: Dolnicki, P., & Kroh, P. (2022). Skład frakcjonalny stożków gruzowych w kontekście zróżnicowanego klimatu peryglacjalnych stoków górskich (na przykładzie Spitsbergenu i środkowej Azji). Przegląd Geograficzny, 94(4), 437-450. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.2
MLA: Dolnicki, Piotr, and Kroh, Paweł. "Skład frakcjonalny stożków gruzowych w kontekście zróżnicowanego klimatu peryglacjalnych stoków górskich (na przykładzie Spitsbergenu i środkowej Azji)". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, 2022, pp. 437-450. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.2
Chicago: Dolnicki, Piotr, and Kroh, Paweł. "Skład frakcjonalny stożków gruzowych w kontekście zróżnicowanego klimatu peryglacjalnych stoków górskich (na przykładzie Spitsbergenu i środkowej Azji)". Przegląd Geograficzny 94, no. 4 (2022): 437-450. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.2
Harvard: Dolnicki, P., & Kroh, P. 2022. "Skład frakcjonalny stożków gruzowych w kontekście zróżnicowanego klimatu peryglacjalnych stoków górskich (na przykładzie Spitsbergenu i środkowej Azji)". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 437-450. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.2
Assessment of the suitability of the laser disdrometer and meteorological radar for rainfall estimation
Przegląd Geograficzny (2022) tom 94, zeszyt 4, pp. 451-470 | Full text
Contemporary challenges in the management of stormwater and modelling of rainfall-runoff processes (in urban areas in particular) require the use of rainfall-estimation devices more advanced than rain gauges. One such device is the laser disdrometer, which allows (alongside radar reflectivity) for measurement of the intensity of rainfall of high temporal resolution and an accuracy greater than that available using rain gauges. On the other hand, meteorological radar makes it possible to estimate rainfall with a high degree of spatial resolution. The disadvantage of radar observations is the inaccuracy of the rainfall data obtained.
Measurements of atmospheric precipitation conducted at the WULS-SGGW Meteorological Station in Warsaw in the years 2012‑2014 and 2019‑2020, using a tipping-bucket rain gauge and the laser disdrometer (Parsivel), were combined with data obtained from the meteorological radar in Legionowo (in the C-band), with this allowing data to be collected to allow for assessment of the usefulness of the disdrometer and radar where the estimation of rainfall is concerned. The two instruments have independent systems by which to record precipitation data, ensuring a mutual time shift. This made temporary synchronisation a necessity.
The data for the entire study period were used in analysing correlations between 24‑hour rainfall depths estimated on the basis of the rain gauge, on the one hand; and the disdrometer on the other. The correlation coefficient R obtained was equal to 0.87. However, the total amount of rainfall calculated on the basis of the data from the disdrometer was about 40% greater than the corresponding value from the rain gauge.
From the dataset for the years 2012‑2014, 21 individual events were selected for further analysis, with these being ones for which radar-estimated rainfall data in the form of a PAC hydrological product generated by the system belonging to Poland’s Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB) were also available. The data measured using the rain gauge and the disdrometer were characterised by a high time resolution, of 1 min. The rainfall-intensity values obtained from the PAC product had a temporal resolution of 10 min and a spatial resolution of 1 km. The rainfall data from the disdrometer and radar were then used in analysing the correlations between these and corresponding measurements made by rain-gauge. The mean and median values of the R correlation coefficient, obtained in these analyses on the basis of rainfall-intensity values averaged over 10-min time intervals (though observed at the basic 1-min resolution) were, when estimated using the disdrometer, of 0.98 and 0.99 respectively. Correlations based around rainfall-intensity values at the 1-min level of resolution only assumed lower values. The adequate values of the R coefficient, as determined for the radar data, were of 0.68 and 0.77 respectively.
The study also extended to include comparison of total values estimated for 21 individual rainfall events using the disdrometer and radar (the PAC hydrological product), as compared with data measured using the rain gauge. The analysed values from the disdrometer were greater than the corresponding rain-gauge values for almost all events, while those obtained using radar were lower in most cases. The mean and median values of the relative error, obtained in relation to the values of rainfall totals measured using the disdrometer, were 35.2 and 38.3% respectively. The relative error values, obtained in adequate analysis based around data from the PAC radar product, proved to be much higher, and amounted to 49.1 and 59.1% respectively. This analysis therefore made it clear how disdrometer- and radar-based data require prior correction before any potential use can be made of them, e.g. in hydrological analyses.
This paper’s simple method of adjusting the heights of rainfall estimated on the basis of the disdrometer at specific (assumed 10-min) time intervals during the event was able to achieve a significant reduction of differences in the total rainfall values for single events, as supplied by data from the disdrometer and the rain gauge. In regard to the adjusted data from the disdrometer, the mean and median values for relative error were of 15.5 and 17.6% respectively, in respect of the 12 rainfall events used to verify the method.
Keywords: tipping-bucket rain gauge, laser disdrometer, meteorological radar, hydrology, rainfall intensity and totals, correlation of rainfall data
firstname.lastname@example.org], Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, Instytut Inżynierii Środowiska[
APA: Barszcz, M. (2022). Ocena przydatności disdrometru laserowego i radaru meteorologicznego do szacowania wielkości opadów deszczu. Przegląd Geograficzny, 94(4), 451-470. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.3
MLA: Barszcz, Mariusz Paweł. "Ocena przydatności disdrometru laserowego i radaru meteorologicznego do szacowania wielkości opadów deszczu". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, 2022, pp. 451-470. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.3
Chicago: Barszcz, Mariusz Paweł. "Ocena przydatności disdrometru laserowego i radaru meteorologicznego do szacowania wielkości opadów deszczu". Przegląd Geograficzny 94, no. 4 (2022): 451-470. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.3
Harvard: Barszcz, M. 2022. "Ocena przydatności disdrometru laserowego i radaru meteorologicznego do szacowania wielkości opadów deszczu". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 451-470. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.3
Forest ecosystem restoration – assumptions and aims of global activities in the context of the United Nations Decade of Ecosystem Restoration (2021‑2030)
Przegląd Geograficzny (2022) tom 94, zeszyt 4, pp. 471-501 | Full text
This paper focuses on the restoration of forest ecosystems highlighting the importance of valuable ecological features. The focus is furthermore on a global perspective, with analyses taking in the main aspects of forest degradation and restoration from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Particular emphasis is placed on environmental policy as pursued currently, first and foremost in regard to the main instrument of ecosystem restoration that is constituted by the United Nations’ Decade thereof, running from 2021‑2030 (in accordance with UN Resolution A/Res/73/284). The article points to the linkage between policies seeking to counteract forest degradation on the one hand, and on the other to achieve the conservation of biodiversity, the protection of land, and both mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. Stress is further placed on an appropriate hierarchy of strategies seeking to improve the state of the world’s forests. While conservation, restoration and reforestation are the three main directions to Sustainable Forest Management, it is the first of the three that must always be emphasised first and foremost.
The study work at the heart of this article highlights a need for worldwide acceleration of the processes restoring forest ecosystems. Following the logic of interrelations between degradation and restoration, the problem of ecosystem degradation is first turned to, with an analysis of global deforestation also incorporated. Trends as regards the loss of forest and of tree cover in general over in the last 30 years are presented, with the basis for this examination being data from the FAO’s Forest Resource Assessment and Global Forest Watch. Furthermore, forest degradation and deforestation have been proceeding to an advanced degree in recent decades. In this way major losses have afflicted tropical forests and the so-called Intact Forest Landscapes. Importantly, many international commitments have now been taken on, with ambitious targets set in regard to the need for both deterioration of forest and the loss of tree cover to be stemmed. However, as the New York Declaration on Forests and other instruments make clear, most of the targets set for 2020 were not actually achieved.
In its consideration of the theoretical foundations of forest-ecosystem restoration, this paper reflects upon resilience, the recovery of native ecosystems, and the process of natural regeneration. The main contemporary paradigms to the theory and practice of forest-ecosystem restoration are here demonstrated, with the basis of the enquiry being formulae for the restoration of ecosystems elaborated by the Society of Ecological Restoration. Quite a large part of the study has been devoted to the Forest Landscape Restoration approach, with a presentation of the main FLR options as elaborated by the FLR Global Partnership. Two dominant types of FLR (‘wide-scale’ and ‘mosaic restoration’) are here integrated, while examples of challenging actions in the field of forest-ecosystem restoration have been provided, including AFR100, The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel, the 20 x 20 Initiative, and the Trillion Trees Campaign. Taking into account the importance of the latest EU activity in the field of nature protection, remarks are made in regard to the 2022 Nature Restoration Law.
The discussion brings to light certain aspects of criticism vis-à-vis the pursuit of forest restoration, which are to be found in the subject literature. This signals a problem of the conservation of forests being overshadowed by careless application of activities driven by climate-change policies. As numerous scientists demonstrate (see e.g. the Kew Declaration on reforestation…, 2021), this practice frequently leads to the mass-planting of fast-growing trees of exotic species, sometimes even invasive. In this way a threat may actually be posed to the ecological richness and valuable landscape features the given area possesses.
Indeed, the present study underlines repeatedly the significance of natural and native ecosystems. However it also puts emphasis on the multi-purpose nature of the effort, the need for a holistic approach to be taken, and the importance of context as projects seeking the restoration of forest ecosystems are planned and implemented.
Keywords: ecosystem degradation, forest protection, environmental policy, the Earth
email@example.com], Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Wydział Filozofii i Nauk Społecznych[
APA: Bożętka, B. (2022). Przywracanie ekosystemów leśnych – cele i założenia działań globalnych w kontekście Dekady Przywracania Ekosystemów (2021‑2030) ONZ. Przegląd Geograficzny, 94(4), 471-501. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.4
MLA: Bożętka, Barbara. "Przywracanie ekosystemów leśnych – cele i założenia działań globalnych w kontekście Dekady Przywracania Ekosystemów (2021‑2030) ONZ". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, 2022, pp. 471-501. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.4
Chicago: Bożętka, Barbara. "Przywracanie ekosystemów leśnych – cele i założenia działań globalnych w kontekście Dekady Przywracania Ekosystemów (2021‑2030) ONZ". Przegląd Geograficzny 94, no. 4 (2022): 471-501. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.4
Harvard: Bożętka, B. 2022. "Przywracanie ekosystemów leśnych – cele i założenia działań globalnych w kontekście Dekady Przywracania Ekosystemów (2021‑2030) ONZ". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 471-501. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.4
Changes in water-runoff patterns in Carpathian catchments during the winter hydrological half-years of the 1981‑2020 period
Przegląd Geograficzny (2022) tom 94, zeszyt 4, pp. 503-519 | Full text
Ongoing changes in climate (increases in air temperature, changes in the distribution of precipitation over the year) exert an influence on the genesis of watercourse supply, as expressed in relation to the three sources represented by rain, snowmelt and groundwater. In that context, to the work detailed here had as its aim the spatial and temporal determination of the structure (and trends) characterising winter hydrological half‑year runoff from selected river catchments in the Western Carpathians, in the assumed circumstances of a changing climate and growing anthropopressure. To ensure adequate characterisation of the situation, the study took in four drainage basins, representing both the Beskid Mountains as such (in the catchments of the Soła and Osława), as well as their Foothills (in the catchments of the Skawinka and Stobnica). It was in relation to these four watercourses that the nature of the supply was determined over the 40‑year (1981‑2020) period, in regard to mean daily flows in the profiles closing the selected catchments. Interpretation of the nature of supply was made possible by meteorological data concerning precipitation totals and types, thickness of snow cover and air temperature. Mean values for winter half‑year precipitation totals (PWHY) ranged from 226.5 mm (Skawinka) to 440.6 mm (Soła). The share of annual total precipitation (PA) accounted for by PWHY ranged on average from 30.1% (Skawinka) to 43.9% (Soła). The average winter half‑year totals for snowfall (SF) in the study period ranged from 104.8 mm (Skawinka) to 313.4 mm (Soła). It was thus in the latter two catchments that the extreme shares of overall precipitation in the winter hydrological half‑year accounted for by snowfall were to be found, at 30.9% and 43.7% respectively. Average values for runoff in the winter half‑year (HWHY) ranged from 150.3 mm (in the Skawinka catchment) to 348.8 mm (in the Osława catchment), while the share of annual outflow (HA) accounted for by HWHY averaged between 50.9% (Soła) and 60.4% (Stobnica). The 1981‑2020 period was not found to be characterised by any statistically significant directions of change in HWHY, though negative HWHY trends could be noted for all the catchments studied in regard to the years since 2000, with the range of relevant values being 4‑7 mm∙year‑1. The 4 catchments showed a diversity of dominant sources of supply in HWHY. In the case of the Soła, it was supply by snowmelt that took the largest (40.1%) share, while in the Osława supply by rainfall prevailed (at 38.0%), and in the Skawinka supply by groundwater (on 43.4%). The catchment of the Stobnica featured more or less equal shares of alimentation by precipitation and ground supply (at around 36‑38% in each case). All 4 catchments manifested declines over time in snowmelt‑induced runoff, albeit with these ranging from 0.3 mm∙yr‑1 (Skawinka) to 1.2 mm∙yr‑1 (Soła), while the role of supply involving groundwater is seen to be on the increase by between 0.17 mm∙yr‑1 (Skawinka) and 1.04 mm∙yr‑1 (Osława). In addition, the trend for increase in ground supply was found to be several times more distinct in the catchments of the Beskids as such, compared with their foothills, with marked spatial differentiation being the feature. In the catchments present in the foothills, the increase in ground supply proved similar, regardless of location.
Changes in land cover can be regarded as affecting the magnitudes of values for the α runoff coefficient for the WHY. Average values were lower in the foothills catchments: Stobnica (64%) and Skawinka (67%). In the catchments located in the Beskids per se, the average a values proved to be higher, with differences between catchments also greater (Soła on 72% and Osława on 94%).The negligible change over the study period when it came to the Skawinka catchment could be related to a 5‑fold increase in built‑up areas, even as the most‑major reduction in the runoff coefficient noted in the catchment of the Stobnica, was attributable to a reduction in the share of arable land from 61.0% (in 1990) to 46.4% (in 2018), with a concomitant increase in forest cover from 32.1 to 43.4%. Study of the α runoff coefficient attributable to rain revealed regional variations. While a downward trend characterised the eastern part of the research area (i.e. the Stobnica and Osława catchments), the trend was upward in the western part (where the Soła is located). It was notable how a downward trend for values of the α runoff coefficient either arose or intensified in all catchments across the 1999‑2020 sub‑period. Furthermore, the whole 40‑year study period did witness a downward trend for values of the coefficient for runoff attributable to snowfall in all 4 catchments, with this intensifying further in the 1999‑2020 sub‑period (hence in the same way as with the coefficient for rain‑related runoff).
The research results presented here attest to progressive increases in air temperature affecting precipitation types and totals, and thus also activity as regards the differentforms of watercourse supply in water. To this extent the working hypothesis established gained confirmation empirically, with demonstrably declining magnitudes and shares of river runoff accounted for by the thawing of snow and ice.
Keywords: snowfall, river runoff, winter hydrological half-year, Western Carpathians
firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland
[email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland
APA: Bochenek, W., & Kijowska-Strugała, M. (2022). Zmiany w strukturze odpływu wody ze zlewni karpackich w półroczu hydrologicznym zimowym w latach 1981‑2020. Przegląd Geograficzny, 94(4), 503-519. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.5
MLA: Bochenek, Witold, and Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata. "Zmiany w strukturze odpływu wody ze zlewni karpackich w półroczu hydrologicznym zimowym w latach 1981‑2020". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, 2022, pp. 503-519. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.5
Chicago: Bochenek, Witold, and Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata. "Zmiany w strukturze odpływu wody ze zlewni karpackich w półroczu hydrologicznym zimowym w latach 1981‑2020". Przegląd Geograficzny 94, no. 4 (2022): 503-519. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.5
Harvard: Bochenek, W., & Kijowska-Strugała, M. 2022. "Zmiany w strukturze odpływu wody ze zlewni karpackich w półroczu hydrologicznym zimowym w latach 1981‑2020". Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 503-519. https://doi.org/10.7163/PrzG.2022.4.5